Task 2J Demonstration Test Site Specific Design The objective of this effort is to define the site specific design for the Phase IE demonstration, and estimate the cost of the demonstration phase of the program. The internal combustion engine can provide both heat and electric energy while consuming the methane at the landfill gas site. Table Z lists these simplifications which eliminate the need to incorporate an integrated incinerator and heat recovery unit, allowing the use of a smaller enclosed low NOx ground flare. During the test, an overall mass and energy balance will be defined. The air emissions are significantly lower than other landfill gas con- version devices giving the fuel cell power plant the potential for being the best available control tech- nology for landfill gas methane mitigation.

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A computer system registers any operating shutdown and signals the stations off-duty operating crew via a dial-up system Corporate Background PLES develops and operates energy projects throughout the United States including district heating and cooling plants and plants which produce electric power atu alternative energy resources such as landfill gas. 232.332 Regeneration of Adsorbent Beds and Sample Regeneration Sequence Key features of the design and the related product benefits are summarized in Table 2.

Kilasi C IP Akojį»: 232.32.*.* (232.32.0.* – 232.32.255.*)

A list of requirements was developed for the conceptual design of wti commercial fuel cell landfill gas to energy system. All test and code required documentation will be provided to IFC prior to delivery of the pretreatment system. The relative merits of these will be assessed early in Phase II, prior to making a final selection. The Bio-Gas design also has built- in flexibility to accommodate upsets in the contaminant level that may result from weather or natural phenomenon, thus providing added confidence in the concept.

First stage refrigeration condenser and condensate removal. The largest number of poten- tial sites greater than kW occurs in the to kW range. This is important to show the applicability of the pretreatment pro- cess in the commercial concept.


This analysis assumes an 80 percent capacity factor for the fuel ai and offsetting emissions from electric utility power generation using a coal-fired plant meeting New Source Performance Standards.

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Task 2J Demonstration Test Site Specific Design The objective of this effort is to define the site specific design for the Phase IE demonstration, and estimate the cost of the demonstration phase of the program. Its objective will be to determine the effectiveness of the pretreatment system design to remove critical fuel cell catalyst poisons such as sulfur and halides.

It addresses the key demonstration issues facing commer- cialization of the concept. The use of staged refrigeration provides tolerance to varying landfill gas constituents. Sites in this range are also less well served by competing options, especially Rankine and Brayton Cycles which exhibit poorer emission characteristics at these power ratings.

About 8 to 16 percent of the clean landfill gas processed by the pretreater will be used for regeneration and will provide by incineration the energy for regeneration gas preheating and condensate vaporiza- tion. A challenge test is planned to show the feasibility of using the pretreatment process at any landfill in conjunction with the fuel cell energy recovery concept.

These objectives are discussed in detail in the sections describing the pretreatment and fuel cell systems. Total power requirement of the pretreatment system including the refrigeration compressor is estimated at about 6 kW or about three percent of a nominal kW fuel cell.

For the purposes of the analysis it was assumed that the fuel cell energy conversion system and the flare system would have an overall annual capacity factor of 80 percent.

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Bio-Gas will install and check out the pretreatment system at the Penrose site. Although the emissions are lower from the fuel cell, no specific credit or value is attached to them for this example. Landfill gas blend sample taken for sulfur compound analysis for each scenario.


Resolution of some of these issues will come with the recognition of the long term economic value of the fuel cell in mitigating landfill methane and NMOC emissions while significantly lowering secondary emissions and offset- ting the air emissions from electric utility generators.

The flare will be designed for low NOx meeting South Coast design specifications. In summary, a landfill gas fueled power plant can be designed to provide kW of electric output without need for technology developments.

A secondary objective is to verify the Bio-Gas System’s ability to accommodate contaminant levels from various 2322.32 conditions. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. The conceptual design of a landfill gas fuel cell conversion system must incorporate those features which can provide this capability and be verified in a demonstration program. The site characteristics assumed are the typical values 2332.32 earlier.

Sulfur compounds, volatile priority pol- lutants including halogenated species, and major hydrocarbon species are listed.

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It addresses the key demonstration issues facing commercialization of the concept. In the program we will determine the atii of using landfill methane as a commercial fuel cell fuel; define the amount of pretreatment needed to render the LFG suitable for the fuel cell; and document the emission characteristics of the fuel cell energy recovery system.

aati The assessment concluded that 232.23 sites are ideally suited to the fuel cell concept. The first case assumes there is no clean-up of the exhaust from the lean-bum internal combustion engine and the second assumes that the exhaust is cleaned with selective catalytic reduction SCR. The effectiveness of the refrigeration condensate removal stages will be monitored during the pretreatment system acceptance test. These revenues can be used to offset the investment cost associated with the gas collection, gas pretreatment and the fuel cell power units.